Everything You Need to Know About the History of the Car

We frequently take for granted the fact that we drive from A to B every day. How would we cope without cars or alternative forms of transportation? People fared well enough without automobiles in the past, of course, but such has been their development over time that they have gained a role in our day-to-day lives.

The history of the car actually dates from as far back as 1769, when it became possible to transport humans in steam-powered automobiles. 1806 saw the appearance of fuel gas and the first cars to be powered by internal combustion engines, but it took until 1885 for modern petrol or gasoline fuelled internal combustion engines to be introduced.

It might surprise you to hear that cars with electric power actually made their first appearance in around 1900, but disappeared until now, when they have undergone a restructuring so that they can meet interest in zero or low emission transport solutions. Attempts were made for the first time in 1838, when an electric locomotive that proved capable of a speed of 4mph was built by Scotland’s Robert Davidson.

The first attempts at making cars powered by internal combustion engines are said to have been hampered by insufficient suitable fuels, meaning that gas mixtures were used by the earliest engines. An internal combustion engine running on a mixture of oxygen and hydrogen, for example, was built by Swiss engineer Fran├žois Isaac de Rivaz in 1806.

Particular progress was made in Britain in 1895 when one of the first four-wheeled automobiles to run on petrol appeared; the model was made in Birmingham by Frederick William Lanchester, who went on to patent the disc brake as well as the first electric starter. A national automotive industry had emerged in many countries within five years, but there were not yet any clear standards for vehicle controls or architectures.

A boom subsequently took place in the growth of the car industry, with many smaller firms taking on the challenge. The era’s most widely produced and available car, the Ford Model T, entered production in 1908. Cars no longer had to be a mere novelty, but this was no indication that they were universally affordable either.

Various car designs have come and gone since then, with an attendant significant increase in their functionality. We invest in car insurance for our own protection, and are also assisted by satellite navigation systems, which some vehicles have built into them. Our cars come with temperature control, cup holders, electric windows and hi-tech stereo systems that are capable of incorporating our MP3 players and iPods. There has been a true advance in technology in the short period in which cars have existed, so who knows what future cars could offer?

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What is the History Behind Honda Cars?

Headquartered in Japan, the Honda Company has had a long and successful history of making quality cars. The Honda Technology Research Institute Company is the 6th largest automobile manufacturer in the world and the biggest engine-builder in the world. Each year, Honda builds more than 14 million internal combustion engines. The company builds automobiles, motorcycles, trucks, scooters, robots, jets and jet engines, ATV, water craft, electrical generators, marine engines, lawn and garden equipment, mountain bikes, and aeronautical technologies.

In October 1946, Soichiro Honda established the Honda Technical Research Institute in Hamamatsu, Japan. The goal was to develop and build small 2-cycle motorbike engines. Two years later, Honda Motor Company, Ltd. was created. Honda’s first US storefront opened in 1959 in Los Angeles.

Honda’s first production automobile was the T360 mini pick-up truck. The first production car from Honda was the S500 sports car.

Chronological highlights of the history of behind Honda cars as reported by world.honda.com include:

1963 Honda’s first sports car (S500) and light truck (T360) released. 1966 Sales and export of S800 begin. 1967 Front-wheel-drive minicar, N360, released. 1968 Export of N360 and N600 begin.

1971 Life minicar released.

1972 Civic released.

1976 Accord CVCC (1600cc) released.

1978 Prelude released.

1981 City released. 1985 Today minicar and Legend released. Quint Integra released.

1986 Honda expanded into the luxury automobile market with the creation of the Acura brand

1989 Accord Inspire released.

1990 NSX sports car released. 1992 Worldwide automobile production reaches 20 million units. 1994 Odyssey released.

1995 Worldwide Civic production reaches 10 million units. CR-V sports utility vehicle released. Worldwide automobile production reaches 30 million units.

1996 Step WGN (Wagon) released. 1999 Honda S2000 sports car released. Lagreat Canadian-made minivan released. Insight hybrid released.

2000 Life Almas, first minicar with features for the physically challenged, released. Stream minivan released.

2001 Fit released. Civic Hybrid released.

2003 Honda becomes the first Japanese automaker to produce 10 million cars in the U. S. New Odyssey released.

2005 Ridgeline next-generation truck released in U.S. American Honda Motor begins sales of Phill, the first home refueling appliance for natural gas vehicles. Leasing of FCX fuel cell vehicle for home use begins. Worldwide sales of Honda hybrid vehicles reached 100,000.

2006 Zest unveiled. Performance of next-generation fuel-cell car FCX Concept demonstrated.

2007 Crossroad released.

In August 2008, Honda surpassed Chrysler as the 4th largest automobile manufacturer in the United States. Currently, Honda is the second largest manufacturer in Japan behind Toyota and ahead of Nissan.

Honda increased global production in September 2008 to meet demand for small cars in the U.S. and emerging markets. Due to the current global crisis, the company is now rearranging U.S. production to keep operations functioning, while building fewer minivans and sport utility vehicles.

Honda introduced the second-generation Insight in its home nation of Japan in February 2009. The U.S. market received the new Insight in April 2009. Honda expects to sell 200,000 of the vehicles each year, with half of those sales in the United States. Since 2002, Honda has been selling the Honda Civic Hybrid (2003 model) in the US market. It was followed by the Honda Accord Hybrid.

The history of Honda Cars has been filled with many achievements. With the current economic slow down, Honda is making necessary adjustments to its business structure to ensure its future success.

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Finding the Right Adjustable Automobile Pedal Extensions

Let's face it, not everyone has a voluptuous model figure and legs that go on for miles like Heidi Klum does. In fact, many people have short legs and many more have issues with their size and weight. Unfortunately, size can be a problem for people who are in the driver's seat of their car because it may hinder your ability to reach the foot pedals of the car or just make you generally feel uncomfortable behind the wheel. Your knees could be knocking on the underside of the steering column, you may be trying to stretch yourself both ways to reach the pedals and still be able to see over the dashboard, or you can pull your seat so close to the steering wheel that's practically growing out of your chest, and that just won't do. One solution to this size issue is finding the right adjustable automobile pedal extensions that will work for both you and your car.

But where can you find such a thing? The first place to look is online. Try searching the Internet for car pedal extensions and you'll surely find a number of resources on the subject as well as places that sell the item. It may be a good idea to look through some car-oriented blogs and forums and study up on the best pedal extensions for your car's make and model. Ask questions if necessary. Look through the pictures and read the testimonials. Many car manufacturers offer products such as these for their own line of cars, although there are also many aftermarket pedal extensions available for purchase. Most online sellers will also ship the item straight to your home, and you can either install it on your own or take it to your mechanic.

Speaking of your mechanic, he or she is the next person to ask about this kind of modification to your car. Your local auto body shop will undoubtedly have experience installing and fitting car pedal extensions and will be able to direct you to which product will suit your needs best. In fact, many auto shops have these items in stock, so you can purchase the item and they will install the pedal extensions all in one visit. No muss, no fuss. You get to drive away with a more comfortable driving experience ahead of you.

But wait, aside from comfort, why is it so important that you keep a distance between yourself and your steering wheel, you may ask. Well, according to many car safety experts, you should keep a distance of about 10-12 inches between you and your airbag, to ensure that you sustain limited to no damage from its deployment in case of an accident. And where is this airbag located – in your steering column. So, to avoid injury, and achieve a better driving experience, explore the possibilities of adjustable automobile pedal extensions for your car today.

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Maserati – The Luxurious Partner

If you are crazy about Maserati then congratulations! You are not alone in the world, there are countless people out there who can die for any of these luxurious beauties. Maserati with vehicles like Maserati Quattroporte, Maserati GranTurismo in their fleet, is among top of line car manufactures in the world. Maserati is originally from Italy. The main theme behind these vehicles is always luxury. Although, through the course of time Maserati has gone through many changes but this factor remain the USP for Maserati always.

Since its inauguration Maserati has been associated with motor sports vehicles, but their non sports car is also very famous among the common household. Whether it is about the sports vehicles or domestic automobiles, the tag line of Maserati has to be the luxury. Maserati Brothers the founders of Maserati automobiles had the dream of making the dream cars that can compete with the best on the race tracks, highways and intra city roads. So far, Maserati has lived up to the expectations of its founder. The moment you hold the keys of your Maserati in your hand, you will yourself feel the comfort and pleasure of driving. It always strives to present the beginning of art vehicles that are prepared with best available parts to ensure a hassle-free experience overall. That is why you see that there are so many loyal fans who cannot appreciate any other automobile at all. You can check more information over the World Wide Web related to Maserati automobiles.

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Selling Automobile Dealerships to Public Companies – Effect of Framework Agreements

A framework agreement provides the basis for the business relationship between a factory and a public company (Public). It includes the terms and standards for a Public’s acquisition and ownership of new car automobile dealerships. Each factory has its own restrictions on a Public’s ability to acquire and operate its dealerships.

Most framework agreements are, by their own terms confidential. However, if one is anticipating selling a dealership to a Public, it would be wise to become familiar with its framework agreement and how it might affect a potential sale.

When I was negotiating the sale Lexus of Stevens Creek, a Public indicated it wanted to purchase the dealership, but it already owned 4 Lexus stores (the maximum allowed nationwide at the time). The Public told the factory it would sell one if it entered into a buy-sell with my dealer; however, the factory told them it had to sell one before it put a deal together.

The relationship between Publics and factories has been an interesting metamorphosis to observe. When Publics first came on the scene the factories kicked and screamed. Lawsuits were filed and the concept of public ownership of automobile dealerships was vigorously opposed by the manufacturers.

Later, the confrontational attitude subsided and the factories embraced the Publics as a way to replace certain dealers and as a means to have new facilities built. The glow came off the relationships when a number of the Publics did not perform the way the factory wanted: poor CSI, broken promises, poor sales performance.

For the factories and the Publics, the drafting of the original framework agreements was like composing pre-nuptial agreements without ever having been married or divorced. As the factories learned from experience, the agreements were massaged and modified.

Several years ago while helping obtain the first factory approval for an Indian Nation to become a dealer, a generic Sales and Service Agreement was not adequate to cover the uniqueness of the tribes and modifications had to be made.

The factory knew how to deal with large dealership groups, both public and private, but how does one transact business with a Sovereign Nation (a Native American tribe) that has immunity from lawsuits and does not have to pay taxes? These were some of the issues that had to be addressed (with the factory, the state dealer association and the selling dealer). In hindsight, similar to the Publics’ framework agreements, some of the anticipated problems were imaginary and some were missed.

Publics are rated daily according to the market value of their stock, which value, when they first began buying dealerships, was affected dramatically by increasing the sales volume of the companies through the acquisition of new dealerships.

Dealers, on the other hand, are rated by how things turn out when the game is over and they sell their stores. Consequently, while it might be good for a Public to sell a hypothetical dealership property to a REIT (Real Estate Investment Trust), it may or may not be wise for a private dealer to sell that same property even if given the same terms, or vice-versa.

Privates and Publics have different rules and different motives and, in my opinion, until recently, some Publics did not think they had to act very much like dealers. With the slow-down in their acquisitions, however, Publics have had to act more like dealers and get the most out of each store. As most dealers would agree, the task of successfully operating an automobile dealership is substantially more difficult than buying one with someone else’s money.

In the long-run I believe framework agreements are good because they keep the Publics from controlling too great a percentage of the distribution channels of manufacturers, while simultaneously forcing them to operate more like car dealers.

Although framework agreements are redefined at times, at one time or another the following factories had the following requirements:

TOYOTA/LEXUS

1. Had a limit on the number of Toyota and Lexus dealerships that a Public may own: (a) on a national level; (b) in each Toyota-defined geographic region or distributor area; and (c) in each Toyota or Lexus-defined metropolitan market.

2. Prohibited ownership of contiguous dealerships in the same market.

3. Nationally, the limitations on dealerships owned were for specific time periods and based on certain percentages of total Toyota unit sales in the United States.

4. In geographic regions or distributor areas, the limitations on dealerships owned by Publics were specified by the applicable Toyota regional limitations policy or distributor’s policy in effect at such time.

5. In metropolitan markets, the limitations on dealerships owned by Publics were based on Toyota’s metro markets limitation policy then in effect, which provided a limitation based on the total number of Toyota dealerships in the particular market.

With respect to Lexus, a Public could own no more than one Lexus dealership in any one Lexus-defined metropolitan market and no more than five Lexus dealerships nationally.

HONDA

1. Honda limited the number of Honda and Acura dealerships a Public could own (a) on a national level; (b) in each Honda and Acura-defined geographic zone; and (c) in each Honda-defined metropolitan market.

2. Nationally, the limitations on Honda dealerships owned by Publics were based on specified percentages of total Honda unit sales in the United States.

3. In Honda-defined geographic zones, the limitations on Honda dealerships owned by Publics were based on specified percentages of total Honda unit sales in each of 10 Honda-defined geographic zones.

4. In Honda-defined metropolitan markets, the limitations on Honda dealerships owned by Publics were specified numbers of dealerships in each market, which numerical limits varied based mainly on the total number of Honda dealerships in a particular market.

5. With respect to Acura, Publics could own no more than (a) two Acura dealerships in a Honda-defined metropolitan market, (b) three Acura dealerships in any one of six Honda-defined geographic zones and (c) five Acura dealerships nationally.

6. Honda also prohibited ownership of contiguous dealerships.

MERCEDES-BENZ

Mercedes restricted any company from owning Mercedes dealerships with sales of more than 3% of total sales of Mercedes vehicles in the U.S. during the previous calendar year.

FORD MOTOR COMPANY

1. 80% of the Public’s Ford dealerships had to meet Ford’s performance criteria.

2. Could not make an acquisition that would result in owning Ford or Lincoln Mercury dealerships with sales exceeding 5% of the total Ford or total Lincoln Mercury retail sales of new vehicles in the United States for the preceding calendar year.

3. Could not acquire additional Ford or Lincoln Mercury dealerships in a particular state if such an acquisition would result in the public company owning Ford or Lincoln Mercury dealerships with sales exceeding 5% of the total Ford or total Lincoln Mercury retail sales of new vehicles in that state for the preceding calendar year.

4. Could not acquire additional Ford dealerships in a Ford-defined market area if such an acquisition would result in the Public owning more than one Ford dealership in a market having a total of three or less Ford dealerships or owning more than 25% of the Ford dealerships in a market having a total of four or more Ford dealerships. An identical market area restriction applies for Lincoln Mercury dealerships.

5. The factory could impose conditions, such as requiring facilities improvements at the acquired dealership.

GENERAL MOTORS

General Motors limited the maximum number of General Motors dealerships that a Public could acquire to 50% of the General Motors dealerships, by brand line, in a General Motors-defined geographic market area having multiple General Motors dealers.

SUBARU

Subaru limited Publics to (a) no more than two Subaru dealerships within certain designated market areas; (b) four Subaru dealerships within its Mid-America region; and (c) 12 dealerships within Subaru’s entire area of distribution.

BMW

BMW prohibited publicly held companies from owning BMW dealerships representing (a) more than 10% of all BMW sales in the U.S. or (b) more than 50% of BMW dealerships in a given metropolitan market.

Other manufacturers may impose different restrictions and conditions which may or may not be more stringent.

As a condition to granting their consent to acquisitions, a number of manufacturers required additional restrictions or conditions, such as prohibiting:

1. Material changes in the Public, or extraordinary corporate transactions such as a merger, sale of a material amount of assets or change in the Public’s board of directors or management that could have a material adverse effect on the manufacturer’s image or reputation or could be materially incompatible with the manufacturer’s interests.

2. The removal of a dealership general manager without the consent of the manufacturer.

3. Dualing with another brand without the factory’s consent.

If a buyer cannot comply with the restrictions of its framework agreement with the factory, it will not be approved. Consequently, if one intends to sell a dealership to a Public it would be wise to know the requirements to of its framework agreement before investing a substantial amount of time and energy into negotiating with the Public.

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Automobile Sector – The Indian Scenario!

Introduction:

During early 60s & 70s, automobiles came largely in twos.

In scooters, you had a Lambretta or a Vespa.

In motorcycles, you had a Bullet or a Java.

In cars, you had to choose between an Ambassador and a Fiat.

In trucks, it was either an Ashok Leyland or a Tata.

In tractors, it was between a Swaraj and a Mahindra.

This situation reflected the India of yester years. Economic reforms and deregulation have transformed that scene. Automobile industry has written a new inspirational tale. It is a tale of exciting multiplicity, unparalleled growth and amusing consumer experience – all within a few years. India has already become one of the fastest growing automobile markets in the world. This is a tribute to leaders and managers in the industry and, equally to policy planners. The automobile industry has the opportunity to go beyond this remarkable achievement. It is standing on the doorsteps of a quantum leap.

The Indian automobile industry is going through a technological change where each firm is engaged in changing its processes and technologies to maintain the competitive advantage and provide customers with the optimized products and services. Starting from the two wheelers, trucks, and tractors to the multi utility vehicles, commercial vehicles and the luxury vehicles, the Indian automobile industry has achieved splendid achievement in the recent years.

"The opportunity is staring in your face. It comes only once. If you miss it, you will not get it again"

On the canvas of the Indian economy, auto industry maintains a high-flying place. Due to its deep frontward and rearward linkages with several key segments of the economy, automobile industry has a strong multiplier effect and is capable of being the driver of economic growth. A sound transportation system plays an essential role in the country's rapid economic and industrial development. The well-developed Indian automotive industry skillfully fulfils this catalytic role by producing a wide variety of vehicles: passenger cars, light, medium and heavy commercial vehicles, multi-utility vehicles such as jeeps, scooters, motorcycles, mopeds, three wheelsers, tractors etc .

The automotive sector is one of the core industries of the Indian economy, whose prospect is reflective of the economic resilience of the country. Continuous economic liberalization over the years by the government of India has resulted in making India as one of the prime business destination for many global automotive players. The automotive sector in India is growing at around 18 per cent per annum.

"The auto industry is just a multiplier, a driver for employment, for investment, for technology"
The Indian automotive industry started its new journey from 1991 with delicensing of the sector and subsequent opening up for 100 per cent FDI through automatic route. Since then almost all the global majors have set up their facilities in India taking the production of vehicle from 2 million in 1991 to 9.7 million in 2006 (nearly 7 per cent of global automobiles production and 2.4 per cent of four wheeler production).

The cumulative annual growth rate of production of the automotive industry from the year 2000-2001 to 2005-2006 was 17 per cent. The cumulative annual growth rate of exports during the period 2000-01 to 2005-06 was 32.92 per cent. The production of the automotive industry is expected to achieve a growth rate of over 20 per cent in 2006-07 and about 15 per cent in 2007-08. The export during the same period is expected to grow over 20 per cent.

The automobile sector has been contributing its share to the shining economic performance of India in the recent years. With the Indian middle class earning higher per capita income, more people are ready to own private vehicles including cars and two-wheelers. Product movements and manned services have boosted in the sales of medium and sized commercial vehicles for passenger and goods transport.

Side by side with fresh vehicle sales growth, the automotive components sector has witnessed big growth. The domestic auto components consumption has crossed rupees 9000 crore and an export of one half size of this figure.

Eye-Catching FDI Destination – INDIA!

India is on the peak of the Foreign Direct Investment wave. FDI flows into India trebled from $ 6 billion in 2004-05 to $ 19 billion in 2006-07 and are expected to quadruple to $ 25 billion in 2007-08. By AT Kearney's FDI Confidence Index 2006, India is the second most attractive FDI destination after China, pushing the US to the third position. It is commonly believed that soon India will catch up with China. This may also happen as China attempts to cool the economy and its protectionism measures that are eclipsing the Middle Kingdom's attractiveness. With rising wages and high land prices in the eastern regions, China may be losing its edge as a low-cost manufacturing hub. India seems to be the natural choice.

India is up-and-coming a significant manufacturer, especially of electrical and electronic equipment, automobiles and auto-parts. During 2000-2005 of the total FDI inflow, electrical and electronic (including computer software) and automobile accounted for 13.7 per cent and 8.4 per cent respectively.

In services sectors, the lead players are the US, Singapore and the UK. During 2000-2005, the total investment from these three countries accounted for about 40 per cent of the FDI in the services sector. In automobiles, the key player is Japan. During 2000-2005, Japan accounted for about 41 per cent of the total FDI in automobile, surpassing all its competitors by a big margin.
India's vast domestic market and the large pool of technically skilled manpower were the magnetism for the foreign investors. Hitherto, known for knowledge-based industries, India is emerging a powerhouse of conventional manufacturing too. The manufacturing sector in the Index for Industrial Production has grown at an annual rate of over 9 per cent over the last three years.
Korean auto-makers think India is a better destination than China. Though China provides a bigger market for automobiles, India offers a potential for higher growth. Clearly, manufacturing and service-led growth and the increasing consumerization makes India one of the most important destinations for FDI.

Automotive Mission Plan 2016

The bumper-to-bumper traffic of global automobile biggies on the passage to India has finally made government sit up and take notice. In a bid to drive greater investments into the sector, ministry of heavy industries has decided to put together a 10-year mission plan to make India a global hub for automotive industry.

"The ten year mission plan will also set the roadmap for budgetary fiscal incentives"
The Government of India is drawing up an Automotive Mission Plan 2016 that aims to make India a global automotive hub. The idea is to draw an innovative plan of action with full participation of the citizens and to implement it in mission mode to meet the challenges coming in the way of growth of industry. Through this Automotive Mission Plan, Government also wants to provide a level playing field to the players in the sector and to lay a predictable future direction of growth to enable the manufacturers in making a more informed investment decision.

Major players in the automobile sector are:

o Tata

o Mahindra

o Ashok Leyland

o Bajaj

o Hero Honda

o Daimler Chrysler

o Suzuki

o Ford

o Fiat

o Hyundai

o General Motors

o Volvo

o Yamaha

o Mazda

Foreign Companies in the Indian auto-sector

Until the mid-1990s, automobile industry in India consisted of just a handful of local companies with small capacities and obsolete technologies. Nevertheless, after the sector was thrown open to foreign direct investment in 1996, some of the global majors moved in and, by 2002, Hyundai, Honda, Toyota, General Motors, Ford and Mitsubishi set up their manufacturing bases.

Over the past four to five years, the country has seen the launch of several domestic and foreign models of passenger cars, multi-utility vehicles (MUVs), commercial vehicles and two-wheelers and a robust growth in the production of all kinds of vehicles . Moreover, owing to its low-cost, high-quality manufacturing, India has also emerged as a significant outsourcing hub for auto components and auto engineering design, rivaling Thailand. German auto-maker Volkswagen AG, too, is looking to enter India.

India is expected to be the small car hub for Japanese major Toyota. The car, a hot hatch like the Swift or Getz is likely to be exported to markets like Brazil and other Asian countries. This global car is crucial for Toyota, which is looking to improve its sales in the BRIC (Brazil, Russia, India, China) markets.

Two multi-national car majors – Suzuki Motor Corporation of Japan and Hyundai Motor Company of Korea – have indicated that their manufacturing facilities will be used as a global source for small cars. The spurt in in-house product development skills and the uniquely high concentration of small cars will influence the country's ability to become a sourcing hub for sub-compact cars.

A heartening feature of the changing automobile scene in India over the past five years is the newfound success and confidence of domestic manufacturers. They are no longer afraid of competition from the international auto majors.

For instance, today, Tata Motor's Indigo leads the popular customer category, while its Indica is neck-to-neck with Hyundai's Santro in the race for the top-slot in the B category. Meanwhile M & M's Scorpio has beaten back the challenge from Toyota's Qualis to lead the SUV segment.
Similarly, a few Indian winners have emerged in the motorbike market – the 150 and 180 cc Pulsar from Bajaj and 110 cc Victor from the TVS stable. The 93 cc Bike from Bajaj and 110 cc Freedom bike from LML have also emerged as winners.

Evidently, Indian players have learnt from past mistakes and developed the skills to build cheaper automobiles using `appropriate 'technologies. TVS, for instance, paid an overseas source $ 100,000 to fine-tune home-grown engines rather than $ 1.5 million to import the entire engine. Similarly, M&M adapted available systems and off-the-shelf components from global suppliers to keep costs down and go for aggressive pricing. True, Indian players are still lacking in scale of operation. While economies of scale no doubt play an important role in the auto sector, a few Indian manufacturers relied on innovation rather than scale of operation for competitive advantage. For instance, Sundram Fasteners was able to achieve the feat of directly supplying radiator caps to General Motors purely on the strength of innovation in product quality. The domestic tooling industry bagged the order for the Toyota Kirloskar transmission plant in the face of stiff competition from multinational corporations. The cost of the entire job turned out to be only a fraction of the original estimate.

As the automobile industry has matured over the past decade, the auto components industry has also grown at a rapid pace and is fast achieving global competitiveness both in terms of cost and quality.

In fact, the industry will believe that while the automobile market will grow at a measured pace, the components industry is poised for a take-off. For it is among the handful of industries where India has a distinct competitive advantage. International automobile majors, such as Hyundai, Ford, Toyota and GM, which set up their bases in India in the 1990s, persuaded some of their overseas component suppliers to set up manufacturing facilities in India.

Consequently, the value of cumulative output of the auto components industry rose rapidly to Rs 30,640 crore at end-2003-04 from just Rs 11,475 crore in 1996-97. Foreign companies such as Delphi, which followed General Motors in 1995, and Visteon, that followed Ford Motors in 1998, soon realized the substantial cost advantage of manufacturing components in India.

Finding the cost lower by about 30 per cent, they began exploring the possibility of exporting back these low-cost, high-quality components to their global factories and, thus, reducing their overall costs. Not surprisingly, the industry's exports registered a more than four-fold jump to Rs 4,800 crore in 2003-04 from just Rs 1,033 crore in 1996-97.

Automobile majors such as Maruti Udyog, Toyota, Hyundai have now finalized their plans to invest in some of the critical auto components. According to the Automotive Component Manufacturers Association of India (ACMA) officials, auto component manufacturers are expected to invest about Rs 10,000 crore over the next five years at the rate of Rs 2,000 crore per annum.

According to analysts, the auto component industry could emerge as the next success story after software, pharmaceuticals, BPO and textiles. The size of the global auto component industry is estimated at $ 1 trillion and is set to grow further. Against this backdrop, McKinsey's latest report has estimated that the sector has the potential of increasing its exports to $ 25 billion by 2015 from $ 1.1 billion in 2004.

Threat to the Dream!

India's expedition to become a global auto manufacturing hub could be seriously challenged by its inability to uphold its low-cost production base. A survey conducted by the research, KMPMG firm reveals that the Indian auto component manufacturers are increasingly becoming skeptical about sustaining the low-cost base as overheads including labor costs and complex tax regime are constantly rising.

The survey said many executives believe that India's cost advantage is grinding down fast as labor costs are constantly increasing and retaining employees is becoming more and more difficult. Increased presence of global automotive companies in the country was cited as one of the reasons for the high erosion rate.

Indian auto businesses will only flourish if they boost investments in automation. In the longer term, cost advantage will only be retained if Indian capital can be used to develop low-cost automation in manufacturing. This is the way to preserve our low cost.

Global auto majors are also cynical about India's low cost manufacturing base. India taxation remains a big disadvantage. This is not about tax rates it is just about unnecessary complexity. But some companies also believe there is scope for reducing the cost of doing business.

In spite of this there are opportunities to exploit lower costs right across the board. It's true that labor costs are definitely increasing but they are still five per cent of the total operational costs. The labor costs can be further reduced if companies are successful in bringing down other costs like reducing power costs. Low-cost base can never last long. The company said Indian industry has till now relied on very labor intensive model but it would have to switch to a more capital intensive model now.

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Antique Ohio Electric Car

Electrically operated automobiles are amongst the earliest vehicles, and are more energy efficient than all the conventional vehicles that use ICE (internal combustion engine) technology. Fortunately, for us the electric car doesn’t produce any exhaust fumes, and causes minimal or no pollution even if it charges from most renewable forms of energy. Besides this, these ‘green’ or ‘hybrid’ cars are capable of reducing our dependence on traditional fuels, while helping to mitigate global warming by providing relief from the greenhouse effect.

Electric cars are among the earliest automobiles, more so since electric vehicles predate petroleum and diesel cars. It’s believed that a Scottish businessman, Robert Anderson invented the first proto type electric coach somewhere around 1832-1839. However, it was the year 1835, that Professor Sibrandus Stratingh of Groningen, Netherlands, helped his assistant Christopher Becker design and build the first small electric car.

The antique Ohio electric car is a vintage car now. The Ohio Electric Car Company produced electric cars, which were mainly bought by rich customers during the late 1800s and early part of 1900s. Electric vehicles were also produced by Edison, Anthony, Bakers and others during the early 1900s and even out-sold the conventional vehicles for some time! But due to technological limitations, besides other factors, these vehicles were limited to a maximum speed of 32 km/hr.

However, in 1913, Cadillac introduced the electric starter car, the sales of electric cars experienced a down slide and soon antique Ohio electric cars became just that, antiques. Now, electric cars are more popular than they have ever been with the fear of global warming and the increasing cost of gas.

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How Are Milling Machines Used in the Automotive Industry?

Like many industries, the automotive industry is one that has seen changes over the course of its existence. One of the changes is in the way that the parts are manufactured for the end product. At one time, many of the parts were made by machines that were largely controlled by men but today, many of those machines are computer-controlled to provide a greater degree of accuracy.

Machining is not always used for the production of body parts but it is required for many of the critical components that go into the operation of the vehicle. For example, milling machines are often used for producing components such as gearboxes and engine blocks. Here are some of the specific ways in which milling machines are used in the automotive industry.

Some of the parts that go into the automobile are going to be machined with a cutting tool. This type of tool removes small fragments of metal from the part that is being worked in order to bring it to a specific dimension. They can also help to shape the part and to finish the surface so that the end product is at a very specific size. This allows the parts fit together precisely, extending the life of the automobile by avoiding wear and tear.

Many of the automobile parts are going to be bolted together. This is also another case in which machine tools are going to be used to provide a precise end product. The holes are bored, finished and threaded to allow for this to take place.

As was mentioned earlier, many of the milling machines that are now used in the automobile industry are controlled by a computer. This type of CNC machining produces a much more accurate end product. In turn, the accuracy allows for the production of high-performance equipment in comparison to what was being produced during the early part of the 1900s. The machines that are currently being used are controlled by computer software, which allows for very precise movements within the machines. Although there is some minor deviation from the actual path in comparison to the programmed path, known as contouring error, it is minimal.

One of the factors that are often considered in this industry is the cost of the machines that are used to develop the parts of the automobile. Keeping production costs at a minimum helps to keep the prices lower for the consumer. In this and many other industries, however, it is necessary to produce a high-quality part. Even though the use of used milling machines is common, it is necessary to look into the accuracy of those machines carefully. Fortunately, many of the machines that are used in the automotive industry are well cared for, so long life can be expected.

As technology continues to change, the way that the automotive industry produces the end product will change along with it. Today, CNC milling machines are used in many parts of the automotive industry to produce the precise parts that are used in automobiles that we operate.

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Finding A Good Used Car Dealer

There are several good car dealers in Sydney. If you are looking for a brand new vehicle as well as wondering where to go then there are a few things you can do to improve your search. There are a number of large dealerships that publicize in the major newspapers. They also have websites that you can visit and see what automobiles are for sale. When looking for a dealer you must be careful to select a reputable business. There are sever important tips you should consider when looking for a car dealership.

It is a good idea to first research different automobile dealerships that are closest to you. If you know what type of vehicle you would like to get, then you can focus on those particular dealerships. You should also know how much money you want to spend on a vehicle. If you are going to buy a used automobile, then you should have an idea of what you are looking for. The more information you have in advance, the more prepared you will be to get the best price.

To begin with, you need to figure out the actual trustworthiness and standing of car sellers so check out their reputation. You should also look into their after-sales services. See how their customer representatives treat potential buyer. And if you are considering used vehicles, then you want to consider the quality of the vehicles

After you have done your preliminary research then you can make a list and a cost comparison of the vehicles you are interested in purchasing. If you want to get the best value then you should have a lot of information on the automobile. Now it is time to make a list of reputable sellers and evaluate the prices. Focus on the particular automobile that you want. You want to make sure to stick to a budget.

Know what you need and be sure about this. Car sellers in Sydney can offer a wide selection of wonderful cars but you need to stay within your budget. There are many automobile sellers that have many different types of cars. Narrow it down to what fits your budget and driving needs.

You want to select a dealership that has a wide selection of automobiles. It is better to buy from a trusted vehicle dealer that provides you with a full range of services. The better dealerships offer total support such as inspections, tune-ups, primary engine services along with other kinds of maintenance services. This is very important whether you buy a new or used car.

Look out for hidden costs as well as inspect the car you are thinking about purchasing. It is crucial to take it out for a test drive. Ask as many questions as you can to make sure you are making the best decision. Choose vehicle sellers in Sydney that sell full lines of new and used cars. Make sure to negotiate a better deal on the price. And once you have locked in a price on an automobile, make sure there are no concealed charges whatsoever.

If you want a good deal on an automobile, then you should do all of your research. Buying a new or used buy is a big investment. You want to make sure you are making wise decisions. If you stick to these essential tips then you can avoid losing money or getting scammed. If you’ll need a good deal on a second hand vehicle, you will want to do your research as well as test drive several options before you decide to commit to any particular model. Remember to think about devaluation and upkeep costs whenever identifying a vehicle you want to buy.

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Different Types of Medical Transportation

Medical transportation has existed ever since injured people have needed to be taken to the nearest healer or doctor. Ancient Greek and Roman soldiers have sometimes carried off the line of battle on their shields. For high-ranking officials and military leaders, a chariot might be used to speed the evacuation. In later wars, horse-drawn carriages would ferry soldiers from the fighting to the aid station. In small towns, an ambulance was often unnecessary, as the local doctor would visit the infirm in their own homes. Today, the most common way to get an injured person to a hospital or treatment location is with an automobile ambulance. However, there are many other forms of ambulances throughout the world. Here are three ways, other than automobiles, that people are taken to hospitals.

Helicopter

After automobiles, the most common form of medical transportation, at least in the United States, is the helicopter. Helicopters first saw major use as transport vehicles during the Korean War. The United States military showed how effectively they could be used to deliver troops to remote locations, and retrieve them quickly when needed. Today, helicopters are used for very severe injuries, where every second gained is vital to the survival of the patient. A helicopter can carry a patient from the scene of an accident to a nearby hospital in significantly less time than a traditional ambulance. Along with the greater speed of a helicopter, which can reach up to 250 mph, it also does not have to contend with the traffic and other obstacles that any road poses. Helicopters are also used to pick patients up from remote locations that are inaccessible to other means of transport, such as islands, wilderness, and mountaintops.

Ship

When accidents occur on lakes, around islands, or along the coast, water ambulances are often used to carry survivors to the nearest hospital. Due to their larger size, these ships usually have several trained personnel on board, as well as more, and better, equipment, when compared to an automobile. For accidents that happen far out to sea, coast guards around the world will aid injured passengers and take them to the nearest land to receive treatment. In severe cases, a helicopter may be dispatched to pick up a patient from a ship while still at sea. Due to the remote nature of the sea, and the obligation any vessel has to respond to a distress call, commercial cargo ships, fishing boats, and private yachts often provide medical transportation as well.

Plane

By far the least commonly used medical transportation method, planes are nonetheless important. The most common use of planes to transport patients is when a patient needs to receive treatment at a specific facility. This might be because the facility has the best surgeon in a particular field or is where the person donating an organ is located. Although rarely used, plane ambulances can save lives.

Just as there are a wide variety of ways a person can be injured, there is also a wide range of ways they can be taken to the hospital.

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